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Lesson 5: Adjectives Editing Lesson 6: Adverbs Lesson 7: Prepositions

Position in a sentence[]

Adverbs must be near the word they modify:

"Iċ hrāþe ēode forþ." - "I quickly went forth."

The formation of adverbs[]

Adverbs are usually formed from adjectives by adding -e or -līċe:

  • -e: sōþ true, real - sōþe truly, really, actually
  • -līċe: lēoht light, unweighty - lēohtlīċe lightly, slenderly

A lesser amount are made by adding -unga/-unge or -an (usually meaning from, as in norþ north - norþ-an from the north):

  • -unga: derne secret, hidden - dernunga secretly
  • -an: nīƿe new - nīƿan(e) recently, newly

Adverbs can be formed from nouns by the use of cases, usually dative, but also instrumental and genetive:

  • Dative: hƿīl a time, a while - hƿīlum sometimes, at one time
  • Genitive: dæġ day - dæġes by day

There are a few very common ones which are words in their own right and are not formed from other words, and therefore usually do not follow the above patterns:

  • nū - now
  • þa/þā - then
  • þær - there
  • hider - hither
  • þider - thither
  • hēr - here
  • heonan - hence
  • sōna - soon/directly
  • oft - often
  • eft - back/again
  • sƿā - so

Comparative and superlative[]

Most adverbs drops the -e ending of the positive and add -or for the comparative and -ost for the superlative:

  • sōþe truly, really - sōþor more truly - sōþost most truly
  • lēohtlīċe lightly - lēohtlīċor more lightly - lēohtlīċost most lightly
  • dernunga secretly - dernungor more secretly - dernungost most secretly

Etc, but a few form the comparative with the i-mutation and take no ending and form the superlative with the i-mutation and take an -est ending:

  • lang long - leng longer - lengest longest

To compare between two things, use "þonne" where we would use "then" in Modern English, or you can use the dative case, but this might cause confusion:

  • "Iċ sang leng þonne þū sunge!" - "I sang longer than you sang!"

To use the superlative to compare between more than two things, use the genitive or the preposition "of" with the appropriate case:

"Iċ sang lengest of eallra þāra manna!" - "I sang the longest out of all the men!"


Usually, to say "as...as...", you simply use "sƿā...sƿā..." in place of their Modern English equivalents:

  • "Iċ sang sƿā lang sƿā þū." - "I sang as long as you."|}|}